Records about coffee and its beneficial effects were found as early as in the X century. For a long time this plant and the way of growing it had been a top secret in Arabia. Then some witty Indians managed to get hold of the seed and started growing it in India. In the XV century coffee was brought to Tsargrad palace and it was spread rapidly throughout all Europe. Soon after specialized places for coffee consummation, so called cafeterias, were opened. Towards the end of the XVI century more than 3000 cafeterias existed in England. Coffee quickly became more popular than tea in England and wine in France, which led to protests by church ministers and merchants. Coffee became a part of daily routine in Europe after Vienna had been conquered. Legend has it that after Turkish army had been defeated, a witty Serb redeemed the entire stock of coffee that left behind them and opened a cafeteria in the prestigious part of Vienna. Since Viennese ladies liked coffee, it became the most popular beverage in Europe.
Coffee largest breeders are from Brazil, Vietnam, Indonesia, Colombia and Ethiopia, and beside this 5 countries (from which comes 80% of coffee) there are more than fifteen other countries who also cultivate this plant. You would never recognise coffee wood because it is high up to 9 meters, and his grains are along the branch. It takes a one year period to pass from flower to berry whitish.
How to prepare coffee
Before we use the coffee beans they are dried, roasted and grounded. Frying should be between 7 and 14 minutes (light on 7 burns minutes, medium 9-13. minutes, and for dark 14 minutes), at temperatures up to 240 degrees C. During roasting, especially between 11 and 12 . minutes there are developed a large numbers of tastes(over a hundred), than there comes a moisture loss and color grains change (from green through brown to completely black). There is also sugar and acidity reduction, so coffee is obtained with bitterness. Due to roasting, oil is created and it gives coffee beans a shine. The best coffee is milled just before cooking.
Espresso coffee is considered to be originally from Italy, but the first machine is made in France in the early 19th century.
Filter coffee – it is assumed that is made for the first time in 1908, similar to espresso coffee, with the difference that the water is not released under pressure and it is weaker than espresso.
Black coffee (also called Turkey, Serbian, Greek, domestic) is significantly different from past two because it has a dry grout (in espresso coffee and a filter grout is kept in coffee machine).
Instant coffee in the form that is known today (and used) is created in the 30-ies of the 20th century. Preparation is very simple and fast, the granules are only overflowed with hot or cold water.
There is a very big variety of hot coffee beverages with various accessories. These are the Viennese coffee, mocha, a safe, cappuccino, Coretto Cafe, Cafe Mexicano, Cafe Marnier, Jamaican Coffee, Irish Coffee…
Around the world people drink coffee in different ways, those variations are caused by customs, traditions and cultural heritage. Some people find that morning coffee is an ideal method for waking up, but in many countries, small cups of coffee signify the end of the day and a healthy way of helping digestion. Northern Europeans prefer brighter and less roasted coffee, while southern Europeans prefer a stronger, darker, more roasted coffee, fuller and with more intense flavours.
People in Finland lead in the amount of coffee they drink, prefer strong coffee and drink it at any time of the day.
Mediterranean peoples, they take their coffee very personal and drink strong, rich espresso from small porcelain cups at all time. In a cup of espresso Italians frequently add a glass of grappa, their famous fruit brandies.
In France, before coffee, tea was very popular drink. French ritual is strong morning coffee mixed with a lot of hot milk which they drink from a big cup. Espresso in the bars is a traditional drink for relaxing conversation with friends. In the evening, after the beverage, French have less coffee cup. In Normandy, a short coffee is served with a glass of Calvados (apple brandy), and in the south of France with anise liqueur and fresh cream.
Swedes like Dutch, drink medium roasted coffee in combination with sweet cream.
In Germany, coffee gain great popularity right after it was presented in 1675. Germans in a cup of coffee add condensed milk and canned cream. They gladly drink filter – coffee, instant coffee, and decaffeinated coffee. Als, love to serve a glass of cherry brandy with coffee.
Austrians with cream coffee serve delicious cookies, chocolate and various pastries. This tradition was created in Viennese pubs known for their special atmosphere, exist and it sexists in parts of the former Austro – Hungarian monarchy. Viennese coffee its unique taste partly dues to a few dried figs which are added. Swiss drink espresso with the addition of milk, known as a macchiato.
Švajcarci piju espreso s dodatkom mleka, poznatiji kao macchiato.
In Russia, black coffee is served with sugar and a slice of lemon, sometimes with a glass of vodka too.
In the UK there is a long lasting tradition of drinking tea, but despite this, coffee is also one of the favourite beverages. British like more a good cup of coffee than espresso. Coffee is often served in combination with milk and cappuccino is very popular.
Americans usually drink coffee with more water. In strong cooked coffee, they add a glass of hot water and drink from large cups. Beside that, filter – coffee is also popular. Since the beginning of the 70s of the 20th century, Americans showed a growing interest in the quality of roasting, grinding and coffee making like in the European way. New, modern cafe – bars European type, refreshed the look of many American cities.
Bosnians drink strong black coffee made in a special way. In Bosnia, coffee (kahva) its not cooked, but “baked”. In “dzezvi” (coffee pots) they warm a few teaspoons of ground coffee and poure it with boiling water. Once again, warm and then pour a cup of water which remain . When the coffee boils again it is removed from the heat and leave to rest briefly. Bosnians drink hot coffee from small cups without handles round – the so- called. “Fildzana” slurping so that on the way to his lips it would be cold enough. Coffee is served with cubes of sugar and Turkish delight – sweet oriental desserts with pieces of walnut. The pleasure of drinking coffee without a lighted cigarette for most Bosnians is incomplete. It is also familiar reading future from the coffee grounds known as divination. Guests are usually served with three types of coffee – so called. “dočekuša”, “razgovoruša” and finally “sikteruša”. This last is also a sign for the guests that they should soon go to their homes.
In the Middle East, the grains are roasted and grounded very finely, almost in form of the dust. Then, the freshly milled coffee is cooked in the “ibriku” special dish for the coffee (in some countries, known as kanika, Tanaka, briquettes), with sugar or aromatic spices. Coffee is a symbol of hospitality and guests are always offered with a cup of coffee when they arrive. The oldest and most respected guest is given by first, small, sweetened cup of coffee with rich foam. For poorer families in Arab countries, beans symbolise wealth and success. If the family is unable to drink coffee every day, it has a central place on the table during family celebrations or special occasions.
Greeks traditionally drink Turkish coffee from small cups without handles, and espresso served with a glass of ice water.
During the summer, and extreme heats, people drink foam frappe made from instant coffee, ice, milk and sugar. This very popular mixture was first created in 1956 and is drunk through a straw from a long, tall glasses.
In Sudan, the coffee beans are dark charcoal fried on charcoal and then milled together with clove and other aromatic spices. Milled mixture briefly stands in hot water and is filtered off from the dishes served in small cups.
Cubans drink deep fried, rich and very sweet coffee. Most Cubans day begin with a few cups of espresso with the addition of canned milk. Later, during the day they drink pure espresso without milk.
Indians from the southern region drink most of the coffee during the day. They spice coffee with the palm sugar, milk and served with a piquant sweet snacks – lentils, semolina, rice, coconut, onions and mustard.
Serbs particular love strong and not too sweet coffee. Most adults Serbs begin their day by drinking morning coffee and until the day is over they drink a few cups. Coffee with added milk and chocolate is very popular. Cappuccino and macchiato have more fans than cream coffee. Following modern trends, more and more Serbians, especially young people have fast instant drinks based on coffee. Coffee also in Serbia, is the first drink you offer to guests. They always have their coffee dose at hand. Despite a widespread network of coffee – bars, thermos – a bottle with hot coffee is still part of luggage on trips or excursions.